Food safety management in cocoa and chocolate focuses mainly on incoming hazards and their controls at different stages of processing, as well as prevention of recontamination during further processing. Due to the nature of the products (low moisture, high fat) some specifics need to be taken into account in order to ensure efficient and successful food safety management. The risks associated with these products had been recognized by European industry organizations for chocolate, confectionery and biscuits. In the 1990s, the IOCCC published two codes of practice: one based on the HACCP, and one for specific GMPs for the cocoa, chocolate and confectionery industry [(Caobisco) Brochures available from CAOBISCO (Association of Chocolate, Biscuit and Confectionery Industry of the EU).(accessed 02.06.11)]. The microbiological safety of chocolate products can be ensured by consequent application of the HACCP concept and adherence to prerequisite programs to ensure good manufacturing and agricultural practices, throughout the whole processing chain. This includes not only the final processing steps of making chocolate, but starts at the level – and sourcing – of raw agricultural materials used in chocolate making like cocoa and nuts. Microbial data can play an important role in the verification of implemented controls, but their validity and limitations need to be understood (Kvenberg, J.E., Schwalm, D.J., 2000. Use of microbial data for hazard analysis and critical control point verification – Food and Drug Administration perspective. J. Food Prot. 63 (6), 810 -814; Swanson, K.M.J., Anderson, J.E., 2000. Industry perspective on the use of microbial data for hazard analysis and critical control point validation and verification. J. Food Prot. 63 (6), 815–818; Kornacki, J.L., 2006. Microbiological sampling in the dry foods processing environment. Food Safety. Mag., pp.66).